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Electronic Nicotine, Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems, and Liquid Use by Flavoring and Nicotine Concentrations
J Korean Soc Res Nicotine Tob 2023; 14(3): 101-109
Published online September 30, 2023
© 2023 The Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

Yeun Soo Yang1†, Hyeon Jeong Lim1†, Unchong Kim1,2, Kyoungin Na3, Heejin Kimm1*

1Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Institute for Health Promotion, Graduate School of Public Health, Yonsei University, Seoul, 2Department of Biostatistics and Computing, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, 3Division of Health Hazard Response, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Cheongju, Korea
Correspondence to: *源씗吏
뿰꽭븰援 蹂닿굔븰썝 뿭븰嫄닿컯利앹쭊븰怨 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쬆吏꾩뿰援ъ냼

These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received September 11, 2023; Revised September 25, 2023; Accepted September 25, 2023.
This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, dis-tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: A wide range of nicotine concentrations for e-liquids for electronic cigarettes are available. However, in South Korea, there is a remarkably lack of comprehensive data on their utilization. This study focuses on understanding the experiences of e-liquid consumers, particularly regarding varying nicotine concentrations and flavoring.
Methods: An online survey conducted in May and June 2022 included participants aged 19-39 years who consented to participate in the study. Administered by a research company, the survey collected data on age-specific e-cigarette usage patterns, perceptions, and health-related factors. E-liquid usage patterns were subjected to descriptive analysis, and chi-square tests were employed to compare various categories.
Results: Among the 6,374 ever smokers, a total of 4,479 (70.3%) had used liquid e-cigarettes. Moreover, 3,334 participants had experience with nicotine-free liquids, including 2,637 flavored product users. Notably, 2,063 respondents preferred nicotine-free e-liquids, whereas 1,991 chose low-nicotine products or smoking cessation aids. Adolescents and young adults often classified their e-liquid as “unknown.” Low-nicotine products were prevalent across all age groups (13-18 years: 21.7%, 19-24 years: 33.7%, and 25-39 years: 42.3%). Combinations of PG (Propylene Glycol), VG (Vegetable Glycerin) were frequently used (across age groups: 24.6%, 30.6%, and 42.5%, respectively). Synthetic nicotine use was reported at 11.9%, 18.8%, and 25.3%, respectively, and 619 of 1,722 respondents were high-nicotine concentration users.
Conclusion: Many users lacked knowledge about the ingredients used in their vaping products, highlighting the need for improved awareness. Continuous research is needed to collect information on these products and develop proper action to prevent hazardous health effects from various liquid vaping products.
Keywords : E-liquids; Usage patterns; Nicotine-free; High-nicotine; Electronic Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENNDS)
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