search for



KCI

Crossref

Cross mark

Cited-by

Fundref

TDM

View (201) Download (456) CrossRef (1)
Status and Challenges of Implementing Tobacco Control Policies in Korea: Focus on WHO MPOWER Measures
J Korean Soc Res Nicotine Tob 2023; 14(2): 21-32
Published online June 30, 2023
© 2023 The Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

Jaehyung Kong1,2, Sujin Lim1, Saegyeul Choi1, Gil-yong Kim1*

1Korea Health Promotion Institute, Seoul, 2Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: *源湲몄슜
븳援嫄닿컯利앹쭊媛쒕컻썝
E-mail: kimgy@khepi.or.kr
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0009-0001-0042-9689
Received June 13, 2023; Revised June 25, 2023; Accepted June 26, 2023.
This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, dis-tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
To collectively address the problems caused by tobacco use in South Korea and other countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented tobacco control policies under the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The most crucial and cost-effective tobacco control policy is identified as MPOWER, named after its key components: Monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies (M); Protecting from tobacco smoke (P); Offering help to quit tobacco use (O); Warning about the dangers of tobacco (W); Enforcing ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (E); Raising taxes on tobacco (R). WHO evaluates and publishes the implementation status of MPOWER policies globally and in each country every two years. Since 2013, South Korea has consistently received a “complete” evaluations in terms of M, O, and W (specifically for anti-tobacco campaigns) over approximately 10 years. Additionally, the W-related policy has been rated as “moderate” due to the mandatory implementation of a graphic health warning. However, policies concerning P and E are rated as "weak." Furthermore, the R-related policy has remained unchanged for several years. Currently, tobacco prices in South Korea do not sufficiently discourage purchases, necessitating consideration of price increases. Moreover, the legislative framework for designating additional smoke-free zones and the regulations and criteria for the installation of smoking rooms should be discussed. Additionally, since South Korea has the world's weakest restrictions on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship, urgent institutional improvements are required to regulate tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship activities comprehensively. This should include prohibiting the display and advertisement of tobacco products in retail stores and forbidding the publication of tobacco advertisements in magazines.
Keywords : Tobacco; Tobacco control policy; Republic of Korea; WHO; MPOWER
References
  1. Institute of Health Metrics. Global Burden of Disease 2019.
  2. GBD 2019 Tobacco Collaborators. Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet 2021; 397: 2337-60.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. World Health Organization. Tobacco.
  4. Goodchild M, Nargis N, d’Espaignet E. Global economic cost of smoking-attributable diseases. Tob. Control 2018; 27: 58-64.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  5. International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook Database. 2023.
  6. Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. 2021 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Sruvey. 2022.
  7. OECD. Daily smokers (indicator). 2023. doi: 10.1787/1ff488c2-en.
  8. Seoul National University. Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Study on attributable mortality and socioeconomic burden of smoking and second-hand smoking in South Korea. 2021.
  9. Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. KDCA Report on Harmful Effects of Tobacco: An Overview of Tobacco Use and its Effects on Health. 2022.
  10. Korea Health Promotion Institute. WHO FCTC 15th Anniversary Resource Book: 04 Global Implementation Status of WHO FCTC. 2020; 9.
  11. World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2021: addressing new and emerging products. World Health Organization. 2021.
  12. World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: MPOWER package. World Health Organization. 2008.
  13. 횥nal E, Metinta힊 S. Effectiveness of anti-smoking interventions towards community: a meta-analysis study. Central European Journal of Public Health. 2021; 29(2): 134-42.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  14. Flor LS, Reitsma MB, Gupta V, Ng M, Gakidou E. The effects of tobacco control policies on global smoking prevalence. Nature Medicine. 2021; 27: 239-43.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Ngo A, Cheng KW, Chaloupka FJ, Shang C. The effect of MPOWER scores on cigarette smoking prevalence and consumption. Preventive medicine. 2017; 105: S10-4.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  16. De Looze ME, Henking C, Torsheim T, Currie DB, Weber MW, Alem찼n-D챠az AY. The association between MPOWER tobacco control policies and adolescent smoking across 36 countries: An ecological study over time (2006-2014). International Journal of Drug Policy. 2022; 109: 103871.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Yang SL, Togawa K, Gilmour S, Leon ME, Soerjomataram I, Katanoda K. Projecting the impact of implementation of WHO MPOWER measures on smoking prevalence and mortality in Japan. Tobacco Control Published Online First: 13 September 2022. doi: 10.1136/tc-2022-057262.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking & Tobacco Use [Internet].
  19. National Institutes of Health. Population assessment of tobacco and health (PATH) study [Internet].
  20. Oregon Health Authority. Tobacco Cessation Electronic Referrals Frequently Asked Questions. 2018.
  21. Public Health Institute at Denver Health. Local Public Health e-Referral Toolkit. 2016.
  22. Ministry of Economy and Finance. 2022 Tobacco Market Trend. 2023.
  23. Korea Health Promotion Institute. Integrated Information Systems for Smoking Cessation service. 2023.
  24. Ministry of Government legislation. National health promotion act. 2023.
  25. Lovato C, Watts A, Stead LF. Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011;2011(10):CD003439.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  26. Blecher E. The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries. Journal of health economics. 2008; 27(4): 930-42.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Saffer H, Chaloupka F. The effect of tobacco advertising bans on tobacco consumption. Journal of health economics. 2000; 19(6): 1117-37.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Hagen L, Heydari G, Hammal F. A longitudinal analysis of MPOWER implementation, 2008-2018. Journal of Global Health Reports. 2022; 6: e2022046.
    CrossRef
  29. Levy DT, Li Y, Yuan Z. Impact of nations meeting the MPOWER targets between 2014 and 2016: an update. Tobacco Control. 2020; 29(2): 231-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  30. Anderson CL, Becher H, Winkler V. Tobacco control progress in low and middle income countries in comparison to high income countries. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2016; 13(10): 1039.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  31. Salloum RG, Parascandola M, LeLaurin JH, Shelley D. The Role of Dissemination and Implementation Research in Global Tobacco Control: A Report from the American Society of Preventive Oncology. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 2020; 29(12): 2740-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef