search for



KCI

Crossref

Cross mark

Cited-by

Fundref

TDM

View (133) Download (130) CrossRef (1)
Current Use of Heated Tobacco Products and Its Association with Socioeconomic Factors in Korean Adults: A Study Using Community Health Survey 2019
J Korean Soc Res Nicotine Tob 2022; 13(4): 140-150
Published online December 30, 2022
© 2022 The Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

Sung Yeol Son1, Seo Young Kang2, Hong-Jun Cho1*

1Department of Family Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul,
2International Healthcare Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: 議고솉以
슱궛븰援 쓽怨쇰븰 꽌슱븘궛蹂묒썝 媛젙쓽븰援먯떎
E-mail: hjcho@amc.seoul.kr
ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5358-6549
Received September 14, 2022; Revised November 1, 2022; Accepted November 1, 2022.
This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, dis-tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Background: Cigarette smoking is prevalent among adults of low socioeconomic level, which contributes to health inequality in Korea. However, the relationship between the use of heated tobacco products (HTPs) and socioeconomic position is not well known. We investigated the relationship between current HTP use and socioeconomic position in Korean adults.
Methods: We analyzed 193,220 adults from Community Health Survey 2019. The participants were categorized to either current HTP users or nonusers of conventional cigarettes (CCs), electronic cigarettes (ECs), and HTPs. Socioeconomic factors, including income, education, and occupation; marital status; and drinking status were evaluated between each gender. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between HTP use and socioeconomic positions.
Results: There were 4,572 current HTP users, comprising 985 HTP-only users (20.9%), 2,465 CC/HTP dual users (53.3%), 251 EC/HTP dual users (5.6%), and 871 triple product users (20.1%). The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for males were higher in university graduates and nonmanual workers (AOR 2.97, 95% CI 2.53-3.47). No significant relationship was found between income and current HTP use. For females, the odds were higher in the 1st quartile (AOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.86-3.86), high school graduates (AOR 2.88, 95% CI 2.19-3.79), and manual workers (AOR 2.03, 95% CI 1.54-2.67). Males and females showed higher odds in the young age, separated/bereaved/divorced, and binge drinker groups, but differed in other socioeconomic factors.
Conclusion: In males, the prominent use of HTPs in higher socioeconomic class such as higher education and having occupation, demonstrates a new challenge in establishing tobacco regulation policies. In females, socioeconomic inequalities were identified. Therefore, a gender-specific strategy is required.
Keywords : Heated tobacco products; Socioeconomic factors; Community Health Survey 2019
References
  1. Chang YS, Kang YH. Trends in Socioeconomic Inequality in Cigarette Smoking Prevalence according to Recent Anti-smoking Policies in South Korea: Use of Three National Surveys [dissertation]. Seoul: Seoul National Univ.: 2018. Korean.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  2. Khang YH, Cho HJ. Socioeconomic inequality in cigarette smoking: trends by gender, age, and socioeconomic position in South Korea, 1989-2003. Prev Med. 2006; 42: 415-22.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. GBD 2019 Tobacco Collaborators. Spatial, temporal, and demographic patterns in prevalence of smoking tobacco use and attributable disease burden in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet. 2021; 397(10292): 2337-60.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Kim YM, Jung-Choi KH. Socioeconomic inequalities in health risk factors in Korea. J Korean Med Assoc. 2013; 56(3): 175-83.
    CrossRef
  5. The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Resource Book (2020) [Internet]. Sejong (KR): Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. c2021. [updated 2021 Dec 15; cited 2022 Aug 1].
  6. Lee CM. International regulatory overview of electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products. J Korean Med Assoc. 2020; 63(2): 112-8.
    CrossRef
  7. Cho HJ, Kim HJ, Lee CM, Kim KW, Kim JY, Lee JA. Analysis on use pattern of heated tobacco products and their impact on quit smoking intention. Sejong (KR): Ministry of Health and Welfare; 2018.
  8. Tobacco heating products [Internet]. London (UK): British American Tobacco; c2021. [cited 2022 Aug 1]. Available: https://www.bat.com/group/sites/UK__9D9KCY.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/DOAWUGNJ
  9. Kim HJ, Hwang JE. Contents analysis of heated tobacco products on magazine advertisement in South Korea. Korean Public Health Research. 2020; 46(4): 11-23.
  10. Tobacco market trends in 2021. [Internet]. Sejong (KR): Ministry of Economy and Finance; 2022. January 28 [cited 2022 Aug 1]. Available online: https://www.moef.go.kr/nw/nes/detailNesDtaView.do?menuNo=4010100&searchNttId1=MOSF_000000000058390&searchBbsId1=MOSFBBS_000000000028
  11. Kim H, Kim V. Smoking rate of electronic cigarettes and its related factors within the last one month. Journal of Convergence for Information Technology. 2021; 11(2): 153-62.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Chang Y, Cho S, Kim I, Khang YH. Socioeconomic inequalities in e-cigarette use in Korea: comparison with inequalities in conventional cigarette use using two national surveys. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16(22): 4458.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  13. Miller CR, Sutanto E, Smith DM, Hitchman SC, Gravely S, Yong HH, et al. Characterizing heated tobacco product use among adult cigarette smokers and nicotine vaping product users in the 2018 ITC four country smoking & vaping survey. Nicotine Tob Res. 2022; 24(4): 493-502.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Igarashi A, Aida J, Kusama T, Tabuchi T, Tsuboya T, Sugiyama K ,et al. Heated tobacco products have reached younger or more affluent people in Japan. J Epidemiol. 2021 Mar 5; 31(3): 187-93.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  15. Community Health Survey, 2019. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  16. Cho HJ. Comparison of the risks of combustible cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and heated tobacco products. J Korean Med Assoc. 2020; 63(2): 96-104.
    CrossRef
  17. Kang SY, Lee SK, Cho HJ. Prevalence and predictors of heated tobacco product use and its relationship with attempts to quit cigarette smoking among Korean adolescents. Tob Control. 2021; 30(2): 192-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Lee JA, Kim SH, Cho HJ. Electronic cigarette use among Korean adults. Int J Public Health. 2016; 61(2): 151-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Choi JE, Cho HJ. Analysis of the factors affecting the support to regulating heated tobacco devices among South Korean adults. JKSRNT. 2021; 12(2): 64-73.
    CrossRef
  20. Kim JM, Cho H-J. Reasons for using heated tobacco products among South Korean adults. JKSRNT 2021; 12(2): 53-63.
    CrossRef
  21. Kim HR. Socioeconomic inequality and its trends in cigarette smoking in South Korea, 1998-2005. Health Soc Welf Rev. 2007; 27(2): 25-43.
    CrossRef
  22. Kim SR, Kim OK, Yun KE, Khang YH, Cho HJ. Socioeconomic factors associated with initiating and quitting cigarette smoking among Korean men. Korean J Fam Med. 2009; 30(6): 415-25.
    CrossRef
  23. No Smoke Guide. [Internet]. Sejong (KR): Ministry of Health and Welfare. c2017. [cited 2022 Aug 1],
  24. Seol GH, Jung JU, Lim Bi. Consumer-side determinants of smoking the heated tobacco products. Journal of Korean Economic Studies. 2021; 39(2): 31-50.
    CrossRef
  25. Kim YA, Lee J, Kim J, Kim J, Ko Y, Kim S. The characteristics of electronic cigarette user among Korean smokers: The Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2015. KJFP 2019; 9: 324-30.
    CrossRef
  26. Park EC, Bae SH, Lee MS. Factors associated with electronic cigarettes use in Korean adults. Journal of Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society. 2019; 20(8): 47-55.
  27. Lee CM, Kim SR, Yoo SC. Issues of new types of tobacco (e-cigarette and heat-not-burn tobacco): from the perspective of 쁳obacco harm reduction’. J Korean Med Assoc. 2018; 61(3): 181-90.
    CrossRef
  28. Cho HJ, Khang YH, Jun HJ, Kawachi I. Marital status and smoking in Korea: the influence of gender and age. Soc Sci Med. 2008 Feb; 66(3): 609-19.
    Pubmed CrossRef