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Association between Low-Intensity Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Men
J Korean Soc Res Nicotine Tob 2019; 10(2): 89-98
Published online December 15, 2019
© 2019 The Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

Minji Park1, Seran Min1, Yu Jin Cho1, Sunwoo Kim1, Hyuktae Kwon1, Hee-Kyung Joh2, Bumjo Oh3, Seung-Won Oh4, Ho Chun Choi4, Cheol Min Lee4*

1Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 2Seoul National University Health Service Center, 3Department of Family Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, 4Department of Family Medicine, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: *씠泥좊
꽌슱븰援먮퀝썝 뿬뒪耳뼱떆뒪뀥 媛뺣궓꽱꽣 媛젙쓽븰怨
E-mail: bigbangx@snuh.org
ORDID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8652-4355
Received June 14, 2019; Revised September 20, 2019; Accepted October 8, 2019.
This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, dis-tribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Background: Even a small smoking amount can increase the risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The association between low-intensity smoking [<1/1–10 cigarettes per day (CPD)] and metabolic syndrome (MS) remains unknown.
Methods: Overall, 4,130 men aged >18 years were recruited from the 2015-2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and divided by smoking history into never smoker, former smoker, intermittent smoker (<1 CPD), light smoker (1–10 CPD), moderate smoker (11–19 CPD), and heavy smoker (돟20 CPD). We investigated the association between current smoking amount, cigarette smoking duration, and pack-year and MS and its components. The association between smoking status and MS was evaluated with logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age, body mass index, house income, marital status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and comorbidity.
Results: Multivariate analysis revealed a dose–response association with smoking intensity and abdominal obesity, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, and MS but not with high blood pressure and high fasting glucose. The smoking amount that increased the risk was different for each component but significant for intermittent smoking (high triglycerides), light smoking (low HDL cholesterol), moderate smoking (MS), and heavy smoking (abdominal obesity). Similar dose–response association was observed between pack-year and MS.
Conclusions: Smoking has a dose–response association with MS but this association is inconsistent among its components. The risk of high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol may increase even with low-intensity smoking, but the association between smoking and high blood pressure and glucose is not definite.
Keywords : Cigarette smoking; Metabolic syndrome; Hypertriglyceridemia; Dyslipidemias
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